Fats Oils & Grease (FOG) are generated as a cooking by-product in commercial culinary operations. During kitchen cleaning of cooking utensils and surfaces, FOG is washed into the drains where it is captured by grease traps to prevent release into sewer systems. Local ordinances require regular removal of collected FOG – often referred to as brown grease – captured in the traps.

The amount of FOG generated is significant. According to the U.S. EPA National Pretreatment Program Controlling Fats, Oils and Grease Discharges from Food Service Establishments document, the FOG generated per restaurant ranges from 800 – 17,000 pounds per year.

Until the recent past, the common FOG destination was direct land application or the landfill. Improved technologies and an expanding biofuels market at times support "cleaning" FOG with the grease going to biofuel production and food particulates sent for composting or to the landfill.

Ei intends to research the various FOG destinations along with their environmental and economic impacts.